On account of the above points it can be rather said the portuguese ignited the fall of the mutapa state rather than just simply saying they only sounded a death knell. According to oral tradition chibatamatosi nyatsimba mutotas father sent nyakatondo the messenger to the area north of great zimbabwe to look for salt deposits. The kingdom of mutapa sometimes referred to as the mutapa empire, mwenemutapa, shona. Ancient history is full of examples of the state or governing authorities interfering with religion.
Mwene mutapa is shona for ravager of the lands, and was also the title held by the dynasty of kings who ruled the territory, which was between the zambezi and limpopo rivers. The fumosa said manual barrett in i667q would declare war, exact tribute. It is during this time that agricultural activities mushroomed and took precedence beginning with the establishment of the great zimbabwe state during the thirteenth and. But that state didnt do much and was basically just a mirror image of zimbabwe. Command system heritage from the mutapa empire celebrating. There is a distinct limit to how far a citystate can go. The mutapa state is in spite of civil wars and succession rivalries it continued to exist into the 19th century and remained independent of the portuguese. The butua kingdom, somewhat isolated from the portuguese eventually established a new, truly zimbabwean state. The inability of great zimbabwe to control other lineages. The book is a quick study instrument and is suitable to be used by learners who are about to write their final exams.
The mutapa state ends around 1695 with the rise of the rise to power of the rozvi state. From 1766 to 1806 there were sporadic wars between the ruling mutapas and pretenders to their throne. Portuguese sources refer to mutapa royal capitals as zimbabwe. Chinese blue and white porcelain and indian beads have been found in these excavation sites, revealing that mutapa participated in the transindian ocean trade that helped give great zimbabwe its power. A stamp showing a portuguese impression of the mutapa gatsi rusere. Which was not a result of the baby boom that followed world war ii answers apex. The ruins are located 1,100 metres above sea level looking down on the shashelimpopa river basin on the harare plateau. Monomotapa was a shona kingdom which stretched from the zambezi through the limpopo rivers to the indian ocean in southern africa, in what are the modern states of zimbabwe, south africa, lesotho, swaziland, mozambique and parts of namibia and. Mutapa is thought to be established around 1430, and was eventually taken over by the portuguese in 1760. Mutota who went in a northerly direction from great. The economic decline of zimbabwe gettysburg college. Outline factors leading to the rise of the mutapa state. Mutapa state in the fifteenth century, the following feature has been recorded through. The kingdom of mutapa or any kingdom of zimbabwe holds a captivating history.
Ecological factors factors to do with the environmentnatural surroundings if ecological factors were on the forefront in the rise of great zimbabwe state, it is no surprise that they played the same role in its decline. The kingdom of mutapa, sometimes referred to as the mutapa empire shona. Kingdom of mutapa great discoveries in archaeology. The meaning of the name mutapa is the conquered lands. Mutapa state underwent decline from the latesixteenth century. Its successor in the southwest was torwa, with its centre at khami. Around 1430, a prince from zimbabwe traveled north in search of salt among the shonatavara. Cattle was given to leaders as a sign of allegiance. Classical rome had a painful transition from citystate to empire, increasingly an emp. The new paradigm would mostly mean a retrenchment of the welfare state from social protection commitments simultaneously with much larger public finance support, to. The most powerful local player was the mutapa state, while the. Mwene we mutapa or more commonly and modern munhumutapa. In the second half of the 15th century great zimbabwe came to an abrupt end.
According to oral traditions, nyatsimba mutota migrated from. As a leading global manufacturer of crushing, grinding and mining equipments, we offer advanced, reasonable solutions for any sizereduction requirements including, what were the importance of mining in the mutapa state. The succession to the throne by weak leaders such as the mukombwes and negomo. The kingdom of mutapa sometimes referred to as the mutapa empire shona. Pdf o level study guide for zimbabwean history upto 1897. Shona oral tradition states that the mutapa state was founded by nyatsimbe.
The mutapa state consolidated power and maintained its dominance from the 15th to the 20th century in what is now present day zimbabwe. In as far as religion is an important component of ideology, this suggestion is plausible. Thus mutapa regained its independence sometime around 1720. Munangagwa gettysburg college class of 2011 follow this and additional works at.
The rise and fall of zimbabwe article pdf available in the journal of african history 3. The mutapa people produced and traded a variety of goods such as elephant tusks and gold and encouraged traders including the swahili and portuguese continue. The decline of great zimbabwe led to the rise of the mutapa state. Great zimbabwe civilization the state of great zimbabwe which had its centre in masvingo. Great zimbabwe the ancient ruins of great zimbabwe are to be found 150 miles from the present day capital city of zimbabwe, harare. Great zimbabwe civilizationthe state of great zimbabwe which had its centre in masvingo. So, when the portuguese reached mutapa, they sought to penetrate it through religion.
The kingdom of mutapa sometimes referred to as the mutapa empire, mwenemutapa was a. It has been suggested by some including the archaeologist peter garlake that religion was also significant to the rise and expansion of the mutapa state. These courts, although imprecisely located, are described as big, and of stone and clay. The mutapa state is believed to have been an iron age state which spanned across three centuries till its decline in the 19 th century. Most historians agree that the mutapa state was an offshoot of the great zimbabwe state. The rise of changamire dombo and the rozvi kingdom. The rise of the mutapa state was coined by the factors that led to the decline of the great zimbabwe state such as. The swahili influence was also detrimental to the unity of the state. Mwene mutapa is shona for ravager of the lands, and was also the. The coming in of the portuguese into the state severely led to the states downfall. What were the importance of mining in the mutapa state. The prince was nyatsimba mutota, and the land he conquered would become the.
This kingdom was founded by a royal member from its successor. It could also be argued that it was the seventeenthcentury succession wars within the mutapa empire which, to a large extent, enabled the portuguese prazo holders to gain such a stranglehold over the. The first mwene was a warrior prince named nyatsimba mutota who discovered what was soon to be mutapa when he was looking for a new source of salt. What are factors that led to the downfall of mutapa state. The ruling class of the mutapa people had similar culture and customs as those of the great zimbabwe. The mutapa state was one of western mozambique and present day zimbabwes greatest kingdoms. The empire was comprised of a karanga majority speaking population. The emergence of states such as the torwa and mutapa to the south and north of great zimbabwe probably contributed a great deal to the collapse of the latter. For this, in its turn, we need to consider the great zimbabwe stone complex near. The following reasons can be given to account for the fall of the mutapa state. Mutapa technically was still independent, but was practically owned by portugal. And while it can conquer its neighbours, it cannot absorb them without changing its nature.
The prazo system this led to family separation due to forced labour by the portuguese. The kingdom of mutapa, sometimes referred to as the mutapa empire was a shona kingdom which stretched between the zambezi and limpopo rivers of southern africa in the modern states of zimbabwe and mozambique. The mutapa state is believed to have been an iron age. The demise of great zimbabwe left the mutapa state dominant in northern zimbabwe and the lesser. The origin and rise of the mutapa state free zimsec. This kingdom was founded in 1425, succeeding the kingdom of the great zimbabwe. It is believed that they also found diamond mines but didnt show them to anyone in fear of them being stolen. Part of theafrican studies commons,international economics commons,public economics commons, and theregional economics commons share feedback about the accessibility of this item. Zimbabwes precolonial history zimbabwe and related topics. Finally, in 1962 the systematic publication of portuguese. The portuguese also observed numerous large towns and villages, some as big as three to five kilometers in circumference, with houses spaced within a stone throw of each other. Mutapa empire 1430 to 1760 was an empire, in present day zimbabwe, extending to the mozambique coast.
Contentssocial of mutapa stateeconomic activities of the mutapa stateaims of the portuguese in the mutapa statethe rise of mutapa state afternoon once again some more on zimbabwe. Nov 14, 20 portuguese sources refer to mutapa royal capitals as zimbabwe. Over the next several years mutapa had many different rulers, the last being the rozwi. Feb, 2016 global black history presents the mutapa state. The separation of church and state aaron henson ps55 272015 throughout history, this topic has generated much of controversy. Apr 24, 20 the kingdom of mutapa or any kingdom of zimbabwe holds a captivating history. Using the jesuits in the mutapa empire of zimbabwe academic.
May 04, 2012 the mutapa western adaptation of the munhumutapa or mwenemutapa or monomutapa depending on the shona dialect was one of western mozambique and present day zimbabwes greatest kingdoms. Mutapa meaning and origin of the name mutapa nameaning. May 04, 2017 in the 15th century, changamire togwa is said to have sent back 4 000 hornless cattle to mutapa mukombero which had been ronzerwad to him. The most important fact about the kingdom is that it came into contact with portugal, which caused an explosion of trade and eventually the mutapa kindgoms downfall. Mwene mutapa state monomotapa, munhumutapa, mutapa for short. However it was the mutapa state which invited the portuguese e. The portuguese affected the state economically, socially and. However, the mutapas were not wholly ejected from zimbabwe highlands. As the state was now too large, the lack of one political unit, allowed smaller tributary chiefs to be able to rebel and resist paying tribute and homage to the mutapa king. Mutapa remained nominally independent, though practically a client state. Locate the geographical location of the mutapa state. The mutapa western adaptation of the munhumutapa or mwenemutapa or monomutapa depending on the shona dialect was one of western mozambique and present day zimbabwes greatest kingdoms.
The mutapa people produced and traded a variety of goods such as elephant tusks and gold and encouraged traders including the swahili and. Jun 30, 20 the mutapas control in these far away lands was probably peripheral and not regular. Nov 2008 the rise and ultimate expansion of the mutapa state owed in part to the decline of great zimbabwe. The prince was nyatsimba mutota, and the land he conquered would become the kingdom of mutapa. This book is written with the prime objective to enable o level learners to have a stomach of history. What caused the fall of the citystate and the rise of the. The mutapas control in these far away lands was probably peripheral and not regular. They also lie 300 miles south of the zambezi river and 250 miles west of the indian ocean.
By the 1590s, mutapa had been through many civil wars, leaving the government fragile and weak. The mwene conquering king or masterpillager was the designation given to the state which was referred to as mwene mutapa. It stretched from zimbabwe to the mozambique coast. There were rulers or kings that assumed various priestly titles, like the temporal titles that their offices command. Jan 04, 2016 the mutapa state consolidated power and maintained its dominance from the 15th to the 20th century in what is now present day zimbabwe. As the mutapa kingdom technically is more of mozambiques culture, i wont go into it too much. Monomotapa was a shona kingdom which stretched between the zambezi and limpopo rivers of southern africa in the modern states of zimbabwe and mozambique.
Great zimbabwe was fully occupied for only about 300 years and the rise of the neighboring states of torwa and mutapa coincides with the decline of great zimbabwe. Monomotapa was a shona empire which was centered in the zambezi valley. The state and the economy friedrich ebert foundation. The african ejournals project has digitized full text of. Instead they corrupted the political system by overthrowing a ruler and placing their own ruler, mavura mhande felipe, on the throne in 1629. Mutotas successor, mwenemutapa matope, extended this new kingdom into an empire which. This led to the decline of the state as areas such as the manyika and tete declared independence from the mutapa empire with the assistance of portuguese agents. What factors led to the rise and fall of munhu mutapa state. An important feature of the mutapa state way of life was the close link between politics and religion. Due to the kuronzera system, people in the mutapa state were empowered by cattle from the mutapa herds, starting with the provincial barons all the way down to misha, villages. In the 15th century, changamire togwa is said to have sent back 4 000 hornless cattle to mutapa mukombero which had been ronzerwad to him. Reasons for the fall of the mutapa state free zimsec.1597 410 1285 1402 275 863 1388 320 975 593 1199 825 840 1012 764 938 294 380 808 61 818 1217 735 1247 1393 677 654 793 1597 1507 707 812 985 282 702 23 855 598 1235 1026 526